Showing posts with label tomato. Show all posts
Showing posts with label tomato. Show all posts

Selecting Tomato Varieties

  Tomatoes originated in the South American Andes cultivated as early as 700 AD. They have become one of the central ingredients in many diets on all continents. It is now the most popular plant grown in home and commercial gardens across the world.
  There are two basic types of Tomatoes with literally hundreds of hybrids and heirloom varieties.
    - Determinate varieties grow as a small bush and set all of their fruit early in the year.
    - Indeterminate varieties grow as a vine. They bloom and set fruit as they grow.
  Growers living in hot summer temperatures should plan for the fact that indeterminate varieties will stop setting fruit when night temperatures reach approximately 85 degrees f. In warmer climates growers can plan for setting a fall crop by propagating cuttings from from the mature vines in late summer. Then plan for a new vigorous crop of tomatoes in the fall.
  Unfortunately fungus, bacteria and virus love tomatoes as much as we do so care must be shown in selecting the tomato varieties we grow that are resistant to the strains of disease most prevalent in our areas. Otherwise our effort could be in vain.

Tomato


Indeterminate varieties resistant codes can be found on the plant label or seed packet
Below are the Disease Resistance Codes and a brief description of the major diseases:

V Verticillium Wilt
F Fusarium Wilt
FF Fusarium, races 1 and 2
FFF Fusarium, races 1, 2, and 3
N Nematodes
A Alternaria
T Tobacco Mosaic Virus
St Stemphylium (Gray Leaf Spot)
TSWV Tomato Spotted Wilt Virus

What do each of these codes really mean?

- “V” means the plant is resistant to the fungi that cause verticillium wilt, Verticillium albo-atrum and Verticillium dahliae. The fungi work their way up through the plant’s roots, clogging water-conducting tissue in the stem. They spreads a toxin that wilts leaves and prevents water from reaching branches and leaves, starving the plant. Yellow spots appear on lower leaves, followed by brown veins. Leaves then turn brown and fall off. Infection pattern often resembles a V-shape.
- "F," "FF," or “FFF” means the plant is resistant to Fusarium oxysporum fungi that cause fusarium wilt. First signs are yellowing and wilting on one side of the plant – a leaf, single shoot, branch, or several branches. Yellowing and wilting move up the plant as the fungus spreads, clogging water-conducting tissue in the stem and affectively starving the plant. Left unchecked, fusarium wilt can kill tomato plants well before harvest time. Unfortunately, some fusarium fungi have overcome the initial - “F” resistance attributes in designated tomatoes. Today, newer cultivars have been bred to be resistant to secondary fusarium strains – hence the “FF” and “FFF” designations.
- "N" means the plant is resistant to nematodes, parasitic round worms that often lie dormant in the soil. Nematodes can produce root galls on the plant up to an inch wide. Affected plants are weak, stunted, do not respond to fertilizer, and tend to wilt.
- "A"means the plant is resistant to the Alternaria alternata fungus that causes Alternaria stem canker. Brown or black cankers attack tomato stems, leaves, and fruit, often accompanied by streaks. Left unchecked, cankers can spread across the entire plant and kill it before harvest.
- "T" means that the plant is resistant to the Tobacco Mosaic Virus (TMV), which causes mottling and yellowing in tomato leaves, reduced tomato size and yield, and brown fruit.
"St" means the plant is resistant to Stemphylium or gray leaf spot, caused by the Stemphylium solani fungus. Affected plants develop brown to black spots, which progressively get bigger, turn gray, and drop out – leaving holes.
- "TSWV" means plants are resistant to the Tomato Spotted Wilt Virus. Symptoms vary from plant to plant, but can include yellow and brown rings on stems, brown streaks on p stems, dead leaf spots and tips, and severely stunted growth. Fruit may be discolored at maturity.
A brief video on shopping for tomato plants:


The Beechgrove Garden ep.11 2016

Scotland's favourite gardening programme.


  In this edition of the gardening magazine, Carole is in the Keder, starting the year's collection of tender vegetables, and Jim is with the allotmenteers of Tillicoultry to discover how the community runs this immaculately presented and organised allotment.
   The gardening charity Scotland's Gardens celebrates its 85th year. To mark the occasion, Carole visits one of their new recruits and newest garden on the list, at Barbara Pickard's no-nonsense but beautiful cottage garden at Balmullo in Fife.

The Beechgrove Garden ep.11 2016
The Beechgrove Garden ep.11 2016
After our break at Gardening Scotland Jim George and Carole were back at the Beechgrove Garden where this week it was a lovely summer’s day with some cloud cover. Jim joined Carole and George in the Low Maintenance Garden admiring Pieris ‘Little Heath’ along the way. Carole had noticed a golden Spiraea which was reverting back to its green form. She removed the green growth to stop the whole plant reverting. It is a good time of year to be doing this.
Jim and Carole also admired the Siberian pea tree - Caragana arborescens - a good small standard tree for a small garden. Extremely hardy too.
Meanwhile under the yellow conifer that Chris had raised the canopy of last year and then subsequently planted toughies to cope with the dry shade conditions lots of weeds had germinated. This area had been mulched with Beechgrove’s own cold compost, George was weeding in here as he had noticed lots of garden worthy seedlings there, amongst the other weeds – including
Tender Vegetables.
This year in the Keder polytunnel Carole is again growing lots of different tender vegetables - including cucumber, winter squash and tomatoes. Firstly Carole looked at the range of cucumbers for this year. Cucumber ‘Baby’ as its name suggests produces small, 3-6 inch long fruits. Carole likes to
support these plants with a string tied to the top of the polytunnel.
The bottom of the string is buried below the plant and the top of the string was tied to the polytunnel support. The plants can be trained up the string as they grow. Carole had also buried small pots alongside each plant for watering. Cucumbers are prone to neck rot if watered directly. By filling the
pots with water this can avoid direct watering. Cucumber ‘Anbar’ is a self-pollinating variety
with longer fruits. Cucumber ‘Greenfit’ can be grown in a cold greenhouse and produces long, straight fruits.Quite a good variety for exhibition purposes.Carole then looked at the winter squashes.
‘Little Gem Rolet’ is a smaller fruited variety. ‘Honey Boat’ is a heritage variety dating back to
the late 1800s.
‘Festival’ produces larger fruits and will take a long time before they can be harvested. Winter
squash can be grown as scrambling or climbing plants. In the polytunnel they are being grown on pea netting for support which will give them plenty of room to grown.
In hanging baskets, Carole was growing some tomatoes. The variety is ‘Cherry Falls’.At the far end of the polytunnel 2 tomato varieties were being grown for a taste test comparison. This included a tried and tested variety at Beechgrove ‘Sungold’ and ‘Sweet Aperitif’ which is claiming to be the ‘sweetest red tomato’. We will grow and test.
Featured plants
Cucumber ‘Anbar’ (Marshalls) – self-pollinating
variety
Cucumber ‘Baby’ (Dobies)
Cucumber ‘Greenfit’ (Suttons) - most reliable in
an unheated greenhouse
Tomato ‘Cherry Falls’ (Mr Fothergills) - for
hanging baskets
Tomato ‘Sungold’
Tomato ‘Sweet Aperitif’ (Thompson & Morgan)
Winter Squash ‘Festival’ (Marshalls)
Winter Squash ‘Honey Boat’ (Dobies)
Winter Squash ‘Little Gem Rolet’ (Kings)

Beechgrove Garden ep.16 2015

The tomatoes in the growbags were looking the best and also have the best crops. Surprisingly the plants in the self-watering systems were suffering the most, with the leaves rolled and yellowing and growth stunted.The system with a growbag placed on a wicked reservoir system was full to the top and the compost waterlogged.

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The plants in the Autopot system were looking a
bit better, but the fruit is not ripening in these pots either.Jim also talked about a letter that we have received about the use of the ‘expensive’ watering systems. Jim explained that our aim is always to try the systems and recommend those which work well. Using self-watering systems also means that you can go away on holiday without worrying about the plants. These systems can last 10 years or more if looked after properly, so they can be a worthwhile investment.
Featured varieties:
Tomato ‘Sungold’
Tomato ‘Shirley’
Self-watering systems:
Hozelock Growbag Waterer (Amazon £20.99)
Easy2Grow self-watering Autopot
(Autopot.co.uk £89.90)
Quadgrow - Self Watering Planter (Harrod
Horticultural £42.95)
Polytunnel crops
Carole was in the Keder polytunnel and there are also some problems with the crops in here.Two varieties of Tendersweet sweetcorn are being grown in this polytunnel – ‘Swift’ and a newer variety, ‘Lark’. There was evidence of mould on the leaves.
Carole said that this was probably to do with the high humidity in this polytunnel. The plants have been treated with a fungicide.
The cobs however are looking good. Sweetcorn is planted in blocks to aid wind pollination but if grown in a polytunnel like these are, the plants are tapped gently to disperse the pollen. Carole explained that the tassels at the top of the sweetcorn plant are the male parts, which carry or drop the pollen down to the silks (the female part).This pollen drops down on to the female silks
below leading to formation of the cobs.Cucumber ‘Delistar’ has been cropping since the end of June with at least a dozen fruits so far.These have such a thin skin that they appear lime green in colour and they don’t require peeling.
Carole spotted some botrytis (grey mould) on one of the stems and she put this down to the string supporting the plants cutting into the stem. The Spaghetti squash is doing well. Carole is letting 3 of these vigorous plants form 6 fruits each and then stopping the plant. The 3 remaining plants will be allowed to scramble and fruit freely. The fruits will be harvested at about 10 inches long. Once baked, the flesh separates into long strands that look like spaghetti.Tomato ‘Ananas’ was starting to fruit. This is a
heritage beefsteak tomato and is forming ribbed fruits.One of the fruits however was malformed with the calyx in the middle. Carole thought that this may be due to a genetic hiccup known as proliferation.
Featured varieties:
Cucumber ‘Delistar’
Sweetcorn ‘Lark’
Sweetcorn’ Swift’
Spaghetti squash
Tomato ‘Ananas’
Square metre plot update George was in his hugely successful square metre garden catching up on progress. The dwarf peas (variety ‘Twinkle’) were ready to harvest and according to the camera crew tasted tender and sweet. After picking the small pods,
George said that he will pull up the plants and sow this patch with a new crop. The cabbages were also ready to harvest.
There are 2 varieties – ‘Minicole’, a ball-shaped cabbage and ‘Hispi’, a pointed variety.The idea of this plot is to grow small quantities of a range of crops to use in the kitchen - enough for a small family to eat. The soil has had lots of manure and fertiliser added and is very fertile enabling it to be cropped intensively and successionally.
George took the tops off of the broad bean plants to allow the bean pods to swell.However, the main job of the day was to fill up
the empty spaces.Carole had harvested the potatoes in Programme 14 and George sowed radish, spinach, parsley
and spring onions to fill the gap.He also sowed a winter salad mix where the peas had been. The packet said that this could be cropped through to January but probably not as far north as Beechgrove.Vegetable varieties suitable for a small plot:
Beetroot ‘Pablo’
Broad Bean ‘The Sutton’
Cabbage ‘Hispi’
Cabbage ’Minicole’
Carrot ‘Paris Market’
Carrot ‘Purple Haze’
Carrot ‘Yellowstone’
Fennel ‘Victorio’
French bean ‘Delinel’
Garlic chives
Lettuce ‘Little Gem’
Lettuce ‘Mazur’
Marjoram
Oregano
Pak choi ‘Baraku’
Parsley ‘Titan’
Pea ‘Twinkle’
Potato ‘Arran Pilot’
Radish ‘Cherry Belle’
Radish ‘French Breakfast’
Radish ‘Purple Plum’
Rocket ‘Astra’
Sage
Spinach ‘Medania’
Spring onion ‘Apache’
Swiss chard ‘Bright Lights’
Thyme
Turnip ‘Sweet Bell’ greenhouse. Sadly, the tomato crop was not a pretty sight and Jim put this down to the fluctuation in temperatures – down to 3°C at night and soaring up to 30°C during the day on some days. These extremes in temperature are
very difficult to manage and control. Jim pointed out ‘dry set’ of the flowers - this is where the flowers form but drop off. Jim said
that this was due to the lack of humidity in the greenhouse. Greenhouses need to be regularly dampened down in hot weather.

Beechgrove Garden ep.16 2015
Beechgrove Garden ep.16 2015