Showing posts with label tomato. Show all posts
Showing posts with label tomato. Show all posts

Selecting Tomato Varieties

  Tomatoes originated in the South American Andes cultivated as early as 700 AD. They have become one of the central ingredients in many diets on all continents. It is now the most popular plant grown in home and commercial gardens across the world.
  There are two basic types of Tomatoes with literally hundreds of hybrids and heirloom varieties.
    - Determinate varieties grow as a small bush and set all of their fruit early in the year.
    - Indeterminate varieties grow as a vine. They bloom and set fruit as they grow.
  Growers living in hot summer temperatures should plan for the fact that indeterminate varieties will stop setting fruit when night temperatures reach approximately 85 degrees f. In warmer climates growers can plan for setting a fall crop by propagating cuttings from from the mature vines in late summer. Then plan for a new vigorous crop of tomatoes in the fall.
  Unfortunately fungus, bacteria and virus love tomatoes as much as we do so care must be shown in selecting the tomato varieties we grow that are resistant to the strains of disease most prevalent in our areas. Otherwise our effort could be in vain.


Indeterminate varieties resistant codes can be found on the plant label or seed packet
Below are the Disease Resistance Codes and a brief description of the major diseases:

V Verticillium Wilt
F Fusarium Wilt
FF Fusarium, races 1 and 2
FFF Fusarium, races 1, 2, and 3
N Nematodes
A Alternaria
T Tobacco Mosaic Virus
St Stemphylium (Gray Leaf Spot)
TSWV Tomato Spotted Wilt Virus

What do each of these codes really mean?

- “V” means the plant is resistant to the fungi that cause verticillium wilt, Verticillium albo-atrum and Verticillium dahliae. The fungi work their way up through the plant’s roots, clogging water-conducting tissue in the stem. They spreads a toxin that wilts leaves and prevents water from reaching branches and leaves, starving the plant. Yellow spots appear on lower leaves, followed by brown veins. Leaves then turn brown and fall off. Infection pattern often resembles a V-shape.
- "F," "FF," or “FFF” means the plant is resistant to Fusarium oxysporum fungi that cause fusarium wilt. First signs are yellowing and wilting on one side of the plant – a leaf, single shoot, branch, or several branches. Yellowing and wilting move up the plant as the fungus spreads, clogging water-conducting tissue in the stem and affectively starving the plant. Left unchecked, fusarium wilt can kill tomato plants well before harvest time. Unfortunately, some fusarium fungi have overcome the initial - “F” resistance attributes in designated tomatoes. Today, newer cultivars have been bred to be resistant to secondary fusarium strains – hence the “FF” and “FFF” designations.
- "N" means the plant is resistant to nematodes, parasitic round worms that often lie dormant in the soil. Nematodes can produce root galls on the plant up to an inch wide. Affected plants are weak, stunted, do not respond to fertilizer, and tend to wilt.
- "A"means the plant is resistant to the Alternaria alternata fungus that causes Alternaria stem canker. Brown or black cankers attack tomato stems, leaves, and fruit, often accompanied by streaks. Left unchecked, cankers can spread across the entire plant and kill it before harvest.
- "T" means that the plant is resistant to the Tobacco Mosaic Virus (TMV), which causes mottling and yellowing in tomato leaves, reduced tomato size and yield, and brown fruit.
"St" means the plant is resistant to Stemphylium or gray leaf spot, caused by the Stemphylium solani fungus. Affected plants develop brown to black spots, which progressively get bigger, turn gray, and drop out – leaving holes.
- "TSWV" means plants are resistant to the Tomato Spotted Wilt Virus. Symptoms vary from plant to plant, but can include yellow and brown rings on stems, brown streaks on p stems, dead leaf spots and tips, and severely stunted growth. Fruit may be discolored at maturity.
A brief video on shopping for tomato plants:

The Beechgrove Garden ep.11 2016

Scotland's favourite gardening programme.

  In this edition of the gardening magazine, Carole is in the Keder, starting the year's collection of tender vegetables, and Jim is with the allotmenteers of Tillicoultry to discover how the community runs this immaculately presented and organised allotment.
   The gardening charity Scotland's Gardens celebrates its 85th year. To mark the occasion, Carole visits one of their new recruits and newest garden on the list, at Barbara Pickard's no-nonsense but beautiful cottage garden at Balmullo in Fife.

The Beechgrove Garden ep.11 2016
The Beechgrove Garden ep.11 2016
After our break at Gardening Scotland Jim George and Carole were back at the Beechgrove Garden where this week it was a lovely summer’s day with some cloud cover. Jim joined Carole and George in the Low Maintenance Garden admiring Pieris ‘Little Heath’ along the way. Carole had noticed a golden Spiraea which was reverting back to its green form. She removed the green growth to stop the whole plant reverting. It is a good time of year to be doing this.
Jim and Carole also admired the Siberian pea tree - Caragana arborescens - a good small standard tree for a small garden. Extremely hardy too.
Meanwhile under the yellow conifer that Chris had raised the canopy of last year and then subsequently planted toughies to cope with the dry shade conditions lots of weeds had germinated. This area had been mulched with Beechgrove’s own cold compost, George was weeding in here as he had noticed lots of garden worthy seedlings there, amongst the other weeds – including
Tender Vegetables.
This year in the Keder polytunnel Carole is again growing lots of different tender vegetables - including cucumber, winter squash and tomatoes. Firstly Carole looked at the range of cucumbers for this year. Cucumber ‘Baby’ as its name suggests produces small, 3-6 inch long fruits. Carole likes to
support these plants with a string tied to the top of the polytunnel.
The bottom of the string is buried below the plant and the top of the string was tied to the polytunnel support. The plants can be trained up the string as they grow. Carole had also buried small pots alongside each plant for watering. Cucumbers are prone to neck rot if watered directly. By filling the
pots with water this can avoid direct watering. Cucumber ‘Anbar’ is a self-pollinating variety
with longer fruits. Cucumber ‘Greenfit’ can be grown in a cold greenhouse and produces long, straight fruits.Quite a good variety for exhibition purposes.Carole then looked at the winter squashes.
‘Little Gem Rolet’ is a smaller fruited variety. ‘Honey Boat’ is a heritage variety dating back to
the late 1800s.
‘Festival’ produces larger fruits and will take a long time before they can be harvested. Winter
squash can be grown as scrambling or climbing plants. In the polytunnel they are being grown on pea netting for support which will give them plenty of room to grown.
In hanging baskets, Carole was growing some tomatoes. The variety is ‘Cherry Falls’.At the far end of the polytunnel 2 tomato varieties were being grown for a taste test comparison. This included a tried and tested variety at Beechgrove ‘Sungold’ and ‘Sweet Aperitif’ which is claiming to be the ‘sweetest red tomato’. We will grow and test.
Featured plants
Cucumber ‘Anbar’ (Marshalls) – self-pollinating
Cucumber ‘Baby’ (Dobies)
Cucumber ‘Greenfit’ (Suttons) - most reliable in
an unheated greenhouse
Tomato ‘Cherry Falls’ (Mr Fothergills) - for
hanging baskets
Tomato ‘Sungold’
Tomato ‘Sweet Aperitif’ (Thompson & Morgan)
Winter Squash ‘Festival’ (Marshalls)
Winter Squash ‘Honey Boat’ (Dobies)
Winter Squash ‘Little Gem Rolet’ (Kings)

Beechgrove Garden ep.16 2015

 In the Beechgrove Garden, the greenhouses and the polytunnels are pregnant with produce to come.
Jim is minding his tomatoes while Carole in the polytunnel is dealing with her spaghetti squash and noticing hopeful tassels on the sweetcorn.
Carole makes the first of two forays away up north to Orkney. She visits Caroline Critchlow's garden, which is a historic walled garden a stone's throw from the sea and completely restored in 2008.
The garden is planted to withstand winds in excess of 100mph and the planting reflects its coastal location and is done in cottage style with towering alliums, many varieties of geranium and plants collected from around Europe.
Jim, Carole and George were walking through the greenhouse area admiring the hanging baskets and the lovely corridor of summer colour. They noticed that there were not many cherries left in the Fruit House. The sun hats had disappeared as it was a cool summer’s day, however, there was plenty to be getting on with. Jim took a look at the tomatoes in the Robinsons